A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A


AA1000

A set of standards developed to improve the accountability, reporting and overall sustainability performance of an organisation. Stakeholder engagement is a requirement for the proper use the tool. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing

Accreditation

A process that ensures the impartial, competent and effective development of social audits, providing quality assurance to stakeholders and reducing risk to the system. Back to top
Relevant to: People, Product

Accountability

Sending feedback on a performance relative to a standard or objectives. It can also refer to individual or departmental responsibility to perform a certain function. Back to top
Relevant to: All cube topics

Acrylic

A synthetic fibre made from mineral oil or other hydrocarbons. Acrylic polymer is produced by combining acrylonitrile to react with various process chemicals. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing

ACT (Action, Collaboration, Transformation)

An initiative between international brands & retailers, manufacturers, and trade unions to address the issue of living wages in the textile and garment supply chain. The primary scope of the initiative is identifying each stakeholder’s role and responsibility and how they can support living wages in a scaled up, sustainable, industry-wide approach. Back to top
Relevant to: People, Transparency

AFIRM (Apparel & Footwear International RSL Management Working Group)

A global organisation providing RSL implementation strategy through the supply chain for apparel and footwear industry. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing, Own Operations

Agro Toxics

Chemicals used in agriculture and livestock breeding that are harmful to the natural environment, animals and humans such as pesticides, insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, synthetic fertilizers and hormones. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Own Operations

Alternative fibres

On the one hand can include the development of better practices in the production of conventional fibres, on the other hand it is about the introduction of a group of different and lower-impact fibres. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing

Apparel Water Quality Working Group (AWQWG)

Dedicated to responsible practices around water use and wastewater discharge in global textile and apparel supply chains. Using industry-developed Water Quality Guidelines, the AWQWG uses the Water Quality Guidelines to mitigate the potential harmful impacts and business risks faced by companies operating globally. Back to top
Relevant to: Own Operations, Transparency

Audit

Auditing means to examine, verify, inspect or correct the manufacturing supply chain, or elements, as part of a periodic (usually annual) examination of company’s certification or performance by a third party. It is used for measuring and feeding back factory performance against a defined set of principles (usually a code of conduct). MADE-BY is not an auditing body, nor a certification or monitoring body. MADE-BY facilitates improvement programmes that support partner brands’ suppliers in reaching by a recognised independent auditing body. Back to top
Relevant to: Transparency, Own Operations

Auxiliary packaging materials

Non-core packaging components e.g., tapes, staples, glues and/or metal details. Back to top
Relevant to: Packaging & Transport

B


Best Available Techniques (BAT) Reference Document for the Tanning of Hides and Skins

A guidance document that provides a review of the Best Available Technology in the Tanning Industry across the European Community. Back to top
Relevant to: Manufacturing

Bamboo fabric

Fabrics made from bamboo viscose. Bamboo viscose fibres are regenerated cellulose fibres derived from bamboo trees. Whereas the livestock, bamboo trees, has some valid sustainability advantages; quick growth, insect resistant, grows anywhere, the fibre manufacturing process has the biggest impact on the sustainability performance and has to be considered Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing

Bast Fibres

Strong, cellulosic fibres obtained from the phloem or outer bark of jute, kenaf, flax and hemp plants. They are annually renewable crops, growing in 90 to 100 days. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing

BCI (Better Cotton Initiative)

Launched in 2005, BCI seeks to establish better and more sustainable practices in the field of cotton cultivation. Collaborating with organisations and stakeholders across the cotton supply chain, BCI promotes ‘Better Cotton’, which is produced in a more economically, environmentally and socially sustainable way. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing, Transparency

Benchmark

A point of reference against which a standard or a criterion may be measured. Outcomes can be evaluated against specified activity and compared as a means to measure best practice performance. The existence of a benchmark is one necessary step in the overall process of benchmarking. MADE-BY has created two benchmarks to date: the MADE-BY Benchmark for Social Standards and the MADE-BY Environmental Benchmark for Fibres. Back to top
Relevant to: All cube topics

Better Cotton Claim Units (BCCUs)

The units of conventional cotton that can be substituted for equivalent units of Better Cotton, due to mass balance.1 BCCU represents 1 kilo of physical Better Cotton. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing

Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)

BOD is the amount of dissolved oxygen present in water for the presence of organisms able to decompose the organic material. It is often used to measure pollution levels in water. Higher BOD values indicate greater concentrations of pollutants. Back to top
Relevant to: Manufacturing

Biodegradable

A substance which is capable of being broken down (or decomposed) by microorganisms (such as bacteria) and reduced to organic molecules. A garment to be fully biodegradable needs biodegradable fibres, dyes and finishes. Back to top
Relevant to: All cube topics

Biodiversity

The term given to the variety of life on Earth. It is the variety within and between all species of plants, animals and micro-organisms and the ecosystems within which they live and interact. Back to top
Relevant to: All cube topics

Biological cycle

Cycle where the loop is closed by returning products harmlessly to nature. Back to top
Relevant to: All cube topics

Biomimicry

An approach to innovation that seeks sustainable solutions to human challenges by emulating nature’s patterns. The goal is to create products, processes, and policies that can reproduce nature’s strategy of adaptation. Back to top
Relevant to: Manufacturing

bluesign® standard

An independent industrial textile standard that is built around the principles of resource productivity, consumer safety, air emission, water emission and occupational health and safety. It is an increasingly recognised standard to follow for sustainable wet processing and is a tool which enables improved sources efficiency along the whole of the textiles supply chain. Back to top
Relevant to: Transparency, Manufacturing, Own Operations

BSCI (Business Social Compliance Initiative)

An initiative started by the European Foreign Trade Association (FTA). BSCI was established in order to create consistency and harmonisation for companies’ improvement in social compliance through the whole supply chain. Back to top
Relevant to: People, Transparency

By-product

Anything produced in an industrial or biological process in addition to the principal product. Back to top
Relevant to: Manufacturing, Product Waste

C


Capacity Building

Planned development of (or increase in) knowledge, output rate, management, skills, and other capabilities of an organisation through acquisition, incentives, technology, and/or training. Back to top
Relevant to: People

Carbon Footprint

Quantity of greenhouse gas emissions expressed in tons of carbon dioxide (CO2). Back to top
Relevant to: All cube topics

Carbon Trust

An independent, expert partner of leading organisations around the world, helping them contribute to and benefit from a more sustainable future through carbon reduction, resource efficiency strategies and commercialising low carbon technologies. The mission is to accelerate the move to a sustainable, low carbon economy. Back to top
Relevant to: Manufacturing, Own Operations

Care Labels

Labels that provide instructions to consumers on the care and laundering requirements of a product. Back to top
Relevant to: Use & Durability

Certification

Formal procedure by which an accredited or authorised third party assesses and verifies (and attests in writing by issuing a certificate) the attributes, characteristics, quality, qualification, or status of individuals or organisations, goods or services, procedures or processes, or events or situations, in accordance with established requirements or standards. Back to top
Relevant to: All cube topics

Cleaner Production

A process to implement measures to reduce environmental impact, often undertaken within suppliers. Activities could include implementing ‘good housekeeping’ practices to investing in new infrastructure. Back to top
Relevant to: Manufacturing, Own Operations

Cellulosic Fibre

A manufactured fibre made of regenerated cellulose often originating from woody plants. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing

Chemical Management System (CMS)

A way to manage chemical handling, purchases, use and disposal. Back to top
Relevant to: Manufacturing, Product Waste

Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)

Measures the capacity of water to consume oxygen during the decomposition of organic matter and the oxidation of inorganic chemicals such as ammonia and nitrite. Higher COD values indicate greater concentrations of pollutants. Back to top
Relevant to: Manufacturing

Child Labour

Defined as work that deprives children of their childhood, their potential and their dignity, and that is harmful to physical and mental development. Back to top
Relevant to: People

Circular Economy

A circular economy is an alternative to the traditional linear economy (make, use and dispose). Under a circular economy, products, components and materials are kept in use for as long as possible to extract the maximum value, after their usable life, they are reused, repaired or recycled. See WRAP for further information on the Circular Economy: http://www.wrap.org.uk/content/wrap-and-circular-economy
Back to top
Relevant to: All cube topics

Clean Clothes Campaign (CCC)

An alliance of organisations in 16 European countries, dedicated to improving working conditions of workers in the global garment and sportswear industries. Its members include trade unions and NGOs from different industries. Back to top
Relevant to: People

Closed loop systems

Design and way of thinking to reuse products, components and materials and not discharging them after the use (sometimes also described as “circular economy”). Back to top
Relevant to: Product Waste

CMT

The supplier keeps the development of new styles and the materials under his control, and outsources the labour-intensive jobs (cut, make/sew, trim / final QC, and pack). Back to top
Relevant to: Manufacturing

Code of Conduct

A set of conventional principles and expectations that are considered binding on any person who is a member of a particular group. In companies committed to sustainability, the Code of Conduct is a fundamental tool for the definition of a sustainability strategy. Back to top
Relevant to: People

Collective Bargaining

The process of negotiations between employers and a group of employees (not individual employees) aimed at reaching agreements regarding better working conditions and wages. Employee interests may commonly be represented through a trade union, through an elected or specified representative. Back to top
Relevant to: People

Communities

Environment and people beyond factory gates. Back to top
Relevant to: People

Content Claim Standard (CCS)

The basis for all the chain of custody requirements of all Textile Exchange standards. These common set of principles ensure the integrity of product content from a verified input source all the way through to a finished product. Back to top
Relevant to: Transparency, Own Operations

Continuous Improvement Approach (Kaizen)

A long-term approach that seeks to achieve small but incremental changes in processes in order to improve efficiency and quality. It can be applied to any kind of work, but it is perhaps best known for being used in lean manufacturing. Back to top
Relevant to: Manufacturing, Own Operations

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)

An international agreement between governments. Its aim is to ensure that international trade doesn’t threaten wild animals and plants survival. Back to top
Relevant to: Transparency

COP 21

The 21st Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP21/CMP11), held in France from 30 November to 11 December 2015. The result of the conference was a new international agreement on climate change, applicable to all, to keep global warming below 2°C. Back to top
Relevant to: Own Operations

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)

Whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns into their business operations. CSR is often considered as taking a ‘triple bottom line approach’ whereby a business aims to achieve a balance of economic, environmental and social aspects. Back to top
Relevant to: All cube topics

Corrective Action

Activities undertaken to remedy non-conformities and address a deficiency. May also be referred to as a remediation or remedial action. This is distinct from preventative action. Back to top
Relevant to: People

Cotton made in Africa (CmiA)

An initiative of the Aid by Trade Foundation (AbTF) that helps people through trade, improves the social, economic and ecological living conditions of smallholder cotton farmers and their families in Sub-Saharan Africa. Through training programs, Cotton made in Africa teaches the cotton farmers about modern, efficient, and environmentally friendly cultivation methods that help them improve the quality of their cotton, yield higher crops, and thus earn a better income. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing

Country of origin (COO)

The country where goods shipped were produced. Usually the country of origin is the same as the country of departure. In 2010, MADE-BY updated the Scorecards to include a map showing the production distribution and percentage of volume produced in each country (by CMTs- Cut Making Trim suppliers) of each partner. This was done to ensure greater transparency around where brands are producing their garments. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing

Cradle-to-Cradle

A holistic approach used to minimise the environmental impact of products by employing sustainable production. Under the cradle-to-cradle philosophy, products are evaluated for eco-efficiency in manufacturing processes, material properties and toxicity, as well as potential to reuse materials through recycling or composting. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Product Waste

Cradle-to-Cradle Certified Product Standard

Guides designers and manufacturers through a continual improvement process that looks at a product through five quality categories — material health, material reutilisation, renewable energy and carbon management, water stewardship, and social fairness. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Product Waste

Cradle-to-Grave

From creation to disposal throughout the life cycle. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Product Waste

Cruelty-free Silk

Silk is a natural endless filament yarn produced by the silk worm in the form of a cocoon. In conventional silk production the cocoons are boiled or roasted to kill the worms and use the unharmed filament. Cruelty free silk, also called peace silk does not kill the worms but lets them break free, hence the filament is broken. The quality of the yarn might be reduced since it is not an endless filament anymore. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing

D


Defined Criteria

An accepted social standard such as (but not necessarily limited to) SA8000. Back to top
Relevant to: People

Digital printing

Also known as Direct to Garment (DTG) printing, is a process of printing on textiles and garments using specialised or modified inkjet technology. In general, digital printing uses less hazardous chemical, produces less waste and results in less negative environmental impact than analogue technologies. Back to top
Relevant to: Manufacturing, Own Operations

Direct supplier

Suppliers that provide parts, materials and assembly directly to the brand, usually CMT or equivalent product assembly suppliers. Back to top
Relevant to: All cube topics

Due Diligence

An appraisal of a business (including suppliers), or aspects thereof, to establish certain characteristics – e.g., presence of certain policies, procedures, certifications. Back to top
Relevant to: People, Manufacturing

Downcycling

The practice of recycling a material in such a way that much of its inherent value is lost and cannot be recovered following its next use (for example, recycling plastic into park benches). These is in comparison to Upcycling, where the material retains its original high-quality in a closed-loop industrial cycle. Back to top
Relevant to: Manufacturing, Own Operations, Product Waste

Durability

The ability to endure. In terms of product, it represents long-established ‘good’ design qualities, like efficiency and timelessness as well as quality and performance. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing, Use & Durability

Dutch Textile Agreement

On 9th March 2016 the Dutch government, in partnership with industry organisations, trade unions and NGOs, established a textile covenant. Its aim is to tackle specific environmental and social issues (preventing child labour and improving working conditions) in garment and textile industry in countries such as Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Turkey. Back to top
Relevant to: People, Transparency

Dyeing

The process of adding colour to textile products like fibres, yarns and fabrics. Dyeing is normally done in a special solution containing dyes and particular chemical material. Back to top
Relevant to: Manufacturing

E


Eco-Design

Also known as intelligent design, is a way of thinking about design which takes into account the environmental impact and sustainable benefits of a product/packaging across its entire existence. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing

Eco-efficiency

The ability to produce and deliver desirable, competitively priced goods and services while progressively reducing the ecological impacts of these actions. Back to top
Relevant to: Manufacturing, Own Operations

Eco Label

An environmental certificate that is awarded to products and services. These products and services have to meet specific, identified criteria depending on the product groups. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing

Ecosystems

Generally understood to be the entire assemblage of organisms (plant, animal and other living beings) living together in a certain space with their environment. Back to top
Relevant to: All cube topics

Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP)

A site, facility or set of processes that treats waste water such that it meets the minimum local legal requirements for discharge into the natural environment, e.g., waterways. Effluent treatment plants may be multi-stage; an initial set of treatments may take place followed by centralised further treatment. Back to top
Relevant to: Manufacturing

EMAS (Eco-Management Audit Scheme)

A management instrument developed by the European Commission for companies and other organisations to evaluate and report their environmental performance. Back to top
Relevant to: Own Operations

Embellishment

Non-printed decoration, for example bows, patches, badges. Back to top
Relevant to: Product

Energy

Combustible fuels, such as gas, diesel or biogas as well as electricity, either generated on site (including electricity from renewable sources) or from mains sources and steam (for example from co-generation or district heating). Back to top
Relevant to: Own Operations

Environmental conservation

The practice of protecting the natural environment. Back to top
Relevant to: Own Operations

Environmental hot spotting

A type of supply chain investigation whereby high environmental impact or high environmental risk processes are identified, as a means of focusing effort on areas of greatest need. Back to top
Relevant to: Manufacturing

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)

An analytical process that verifies the possible environmental consequences of the implementation of projects, programmes and policies. Back to top
Relevant to: Manufacturing, Own Operations

Environmental Justice Foundation (EJF)

A registered charity, established in 2000, that works worldwide in their projects to support and to empower those worst affected by environmental abuse. Back to top
Relevant to: People

Environmental Management System (EMS)

An organised system for managing processes and practices that enable organisations to reduce their environmental impact. Back to top
Relevant to: Manufacturing

End of life

In the context of manufacturing and product lifecycles, is the final stages of a product’s existence. Back to top
Relevant to: Manufacturing, Product Waste, Use & Durability

Ethical Fashion

An umbrella term which covers a range of issues such as working conditions, human rights, fair trade, sustainable production, environmental considerations and animal welfare. Back to top
Relevant to: People, Product, Transparency

Ethical Trade Initiative (ETI)

A multi-stakeholder initiative which is active in the garment and footwear industry. Companies with a commitment to ethical trade adopt a code of labour practice that they expect all their suppliers to work towards. Such codes address issues like wages, hours of work, health and safety and the right to join free trade unions. Back to top
Relevant to: People, Transparency

ETI Base Code

Founded on the conventions of the International Labour Organisation (ILO) the ETI Base Code is an internationally recognised code of labour practice. It is classified in MADE-BY’s Benchmark for Social Standards (see Benchmark). Back to top
Relevant to: People, Transparency

ECAP (European Clothing Action Plan)

About embedding a circular economy approach across Europe for the clothing sector. Working with a range of partners from the UK, The Netherlands and Denmark, ECAP is a LIFE funded project that will take the principles of the successful UK Sustainable Clothing Action Plan (SCAP) programme to help develop a pan-European framework to deliver a more sustainable clothing sector. Back to top
Relevant to: All cube topics

EU Eco Flower

A product label and a voluntary certification system developed by the European Commission to promote products which have the potential to reduce negative environmental impacts and contribute to the efficient use of resources and a high level of environmental protection. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing, Own Operations

F


Fairtrade vs Fair Trade

A trading partnership based on dialogue, transparency and respect that seeks greater equity in international trade. This is a wider movement promoting fairer trade practice, not restricted to products carrying the FAIRTRADE mark. Fairtrade relates only to FLO (Fairtrade Labelling Organisations International) and its partners (e.g. Fairtrade Foundation). The FAIRTRADE Mark is a registered trademark used by FLO to certify items that meet Fairtrade standards from Fairtrade producers. Back to top
Relevant to: Transparency, People, Product

Fast fashion

A term used to describe cheap and affordable clothes which are the result of catwalk designs moving into stores in the fastest possible way in order to respond to the latest trends. Back to top
Relevant to: Product

Faulty goods

Products that have become unusable a short time after sale, for example through loss of shape or faulty stitching. Back to top
Relevant to: Product Waste

Fibre

Any substance with a high length to width ratio and suitable characteristics for being processed into fabric. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing

Finishing

A process used in manufacturing of fibre, fabric, or clothing. In order to impart the required functional properties to the fibre or fabric, it is customary to subject the material to different type of physical and chemical treatments. Back to top
Relevant to: Manufacturing, Own Operations

FLA (Fair Labour Association)

A collaborative effort of socially responsible companies, colleges and universities and civil society organisations to improve working conditions in factories around the world. The FLA developed their Workplace Code of Conduct, based on ILO standards and created a practical monitoring, remediation and verification process to achieve those standards. FLA is a brand accountability system that places the onus on companies to voluntarily achieve the FLA’s labour standards in the factories manufacturing their products. FLA is classified in MADE-BY’s Benchmark for Social Standards (see Benchmark). Back to top
Relevant to: People, Transparency

Forced Labour

All work or service which is exacted from any person under the menace of any penalty and for which the said person has not offered himself voluntarily. Back to top
Relevant to: People

Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)

An organisation with a mission to promote environmentally sound, socially beneficial and economically prosperous management of the world’s forests. It sets standards for responsible forest management. A voluntary program, FSC uses the power of the marketplace to protect forests for future generations. Back to top
Relevant to: Own Operations

Freedom of Association

The right to join or leave groups of a person’s own choosing – typically applicable to trade unions. Such groups would normally be able to take collective action to pursue the interests of members. Back to top
Relevant to: People

Full compliance

Typically means no major non conformities and a limited number of minor findings. Back to top
Relevant to: Transparency

FWF (Fair Wear Foundation)

An independent, non-profit organisation that works with companies and factories to improve labour conditions for garment workers. Back to top
Relevant to: People, Transparency

FWF Code of Labour Practice

Made up of eight labour standards derived from ILO Conventions and the UN’s Declaration on Human Rights. FWF verifies that its member companies implement the code in their supply chains. The brands are required to audit all their suppliers within three years. Back to top
Relevant to: People

G


Gap Analysis (for human rights)

The process through which a company compares its actual social performance to its expected performance to determine whether it is meeting expectations and using its resources effectively. Gap analysis seeks to answer the questions “where are we?” (current state) and “where do we want to be?” (target state). Back to top
Relevant to: People

Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO)

Organism whose genome has been engineered in the laboratory in order to favour the expression of desired physiological traits or the production of desired biological products. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Own Operations

Ginning

A process that separates the cotton from the seeds and other foreign matters, ensuring fibre quality is preserved. Back to top
Relevant to: Manufacturing

Global Warming Potential (GWP)

A method for describing the relative climate related impact of a greenhouse gas. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is assigned a GWP of 1; gases with a higher GWP have a greater effect on climate change. For example, methane has a GWP of 25, meaning that 1Kg of methane has an impact 25 times greater than 1Kg of CO2. Back to top
Relevant to: Own Operations

GOTS (Global Organic Textile Standard)

The worldwide leading textile processing standard for organic fibres, including ecological and social criteria, backed up independent certification of the entire textile supply chain. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing

Greenwashing

The process by which organisations spread misleading information about their products or services that suggests they are more environmentally responsible than in reality in order to gain better public perception. Back to top
Relevant to: Transparency

Greenpeace Detox Campaign

The Detox campaign was launched in 2011 to expose the direct links between global clothing brands, their suppliers and toxic water pollution around the world. Fieldwork and investigations in manufacturing countries, along with the testing of branded garments for traces of hazardous chemicals, resulted in the release of reports. Back to top
Relevant to: Transparency, Manufacturing

GRI (Global Reporting Initiative)

A network-based organisation that produces a comprehensive sustainability reporting framework that is widely used around the world. The reporting framework set out performance indicators that organisations can use to measure and report their economic, environmental and social performance. Back to top
Relevant to: Transparency

GRS (Global Recycle Standard)

A standard developed to ensure greater sourcing clarity on recycled materials right through the production supply chain. It is intended for companies that wish to make a content claim on the amount of recycled material in the final product. It is based on the certification of the full chain of custody for recycled products, incorporating environmental and social criteria. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing, Transparency

GSCP (Global Social Compliance Programme)

A business-driven programme for the continuous improvement of working and environmental conditions in global supply chains. GSCP was created by and for global buying companies wanting to work collaboratively on improving the sustainability (social and environmental) of their often shared supply base. Back to top
Relevant to: People, Transparency

H


Hazardous Material

Material of various nature, which has the potential to cause harm to humans, animals, or the environment, either by itself or through interaction with other factors. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing, Own Operations

Hazardous Waste

By-products that can be potentially dangerous for human health or the environment when improperly managed. Hazardous waste classification may be based on characteristics such as ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity or toxicity or appear on special lists that define what is hazardous according to the domestic legislation in the country of operation. Back to top
Relevant to: Product Waste

Health & Safety

Provisions and dispositions in the workplace to prevent accidents and injury to health. Back to top
Relevant to: People, Transparency

Hemp

A soft, durable fibre that is cultivated from varieties of the Cannabis plant. Hemp grows quickly, the fibres are long and strong. Growing bast fibres like hemp may require some fertilisers, although significantly less compared to conventional cotton, but no pesticides. However only about 30% of the stock is bast fibre for textile application; the rest are shorter fibres that are used in other applications such as paper. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing

Higg Index

The self-assessment tool developed by the Sustainable Apparel Coalition empowers brands and retailers to measure their environmental and social and labour impacts and identify areas for improvement. Higg delivers a holistic overview of the sustainability performance of a product or company. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, People, Transparency

Homeworkers

Someone who, for a fixed rate of remuneration, carries out work from their home for an employer who is not the final consumer of the product or service provided. Back to top
Relevant to: People

Hotspot assessment

A broad estimate of the impact of consumption of a resource or the impact of an activity, relative to the brand’s other similar consumption or activities. Back to top
Relevant to: Own Operations

Human Development Index (HDI)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a measure of average achievement in human development: a long and healthy life, being knowledgeable and have a decent standard of living. Back to top
Relevant to: People, Transparency

Human Rights Risk Mapping

Assessing human rights risk of brands through human rights violations, both directly in its operations and indirectly through its relationships. Back to top
Relevant to: People

Human Toxicity

Refers to the extent to which substances which are emitted into our environment can negatively impact on human health. Many materials and garments produce toxic substances during their production process. Producers therefore need to have management systems in place to manage exposure and disposal of these harmful substances responsibly. MADE-BY’s Environmental Benchmark for Fibres, which measures the environmental performance of fibres and compares the most commonly used fibres in the fashion industry, uses Human Toxicity as one of its five parameters. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, People, Manufacturing, Own Operations, Use & Durability

Hybrid Product

Mixtures of technical and/or biological nutrient materials that cannot be separated and recovered at a product’s end of life. Products that are monstrous hybrids typically cannot be upcycled or downcycled, but instead end up in landfills or incinerators. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing

I


Impactful intermediate processing or processes

Manufacturing processes considered to be the most environmentally impactful in terms of water, energy and chemicals. For brands focusing on garments, this is likely to be wet processing, whereas for accessories or footwear brands this may be tanning. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing

In-Conversion Cotton

Cotton that has been grown organically, but for less than three years that are mandatory for it to be labelled organic. Any cotton labelled ‘organic in-conversion’ needs to be certified under the EU organic standard. Purchasing ‘organic in-conversion’ cotton is a great way to support farmers making the difficult transition to organic. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing

Indirect suppliers (or sub suppliers)

Suppliers that sell to the brands direct suppliers. Back to top
Relevant to: Manufacturing

Industrial cycle

A cycle where the loop is closed by recycling non-degradable materials and products. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing, Product Waste, Use & Durability

Intermediate suppliers

Vertically integrated suppliers (beyond CMT), for example mills, wet processing units, tanneries or spinners. Back to top
Relevant to: Manufacturing

International Association of Natural Textile Industry (IVN)

An association with a goal to raise awareness for eco-friendly textiles among consumers, press and the retail trade. Providing facts about ecology in textiles supports a deliberate choice for eco-friendly textiles. IVN’s first step was to define and implement specific criteria to define an eco-friendly textile. Products labelled with the quality seal NATURTEXTIL clearly demonstrate that it is eminently possible to produce modern, truly eco-friendly, socially accountable and high quality textiles. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing, Transparency

International Labour Organization (ILO)

A UN agency comprising government, employer and worker representatives. This tripartite structure makes the ILO a unique forum in which 183 Member States can freely and openly debate and elaborate labour standards and policies. Back to top
Relevant to: People, Transparency

International Labour Organization Core Conventions

International and labour standards ratified by the participating countries and upheld by International Labour Organisations. There are eight core conventions covering Abolition of Forced Labour (Conventions 29 & 105), the right to Freely Associate and Bargain Collectively (Conventions 87 & 98), Minimum Working Age (Convention 138), Equal Remuneration (Convention 100), Freedom from Discrimination (Convention 111), and banning the Worst Forms of Child labour (Convention 182). Back to top
Relevant to: People, Transparency

International Labour Standards

Laws, developed by ILO, aimed at promoting opportunities for women and men to obtain decent working conditions, freedom, equity, security and dignity. Back to top
Relevant to: People, Transparency

ISO 14000

Environmental management standards that provide a practical toolbox to assist companies in the implementation of sustainable development. It is a framework to manage environmental aspects, assess their environmental performance and support the auditing system. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Own Operations, Transparency

ISO 14001:2015

Sets out the criteria for an environmental management system. It defines a framework that a company or organisation can follow to set up an effective environmental management system. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Own Operations, Transparency

J


JO-IN (Joint Initiative on Corporate Accountability and Workers Rights)

The draft code of labour practice of this multi-stakeholder initiative is recognised as the most comprehensive definition of workplace standards and, as such, is the basis of the MADE-BY Benchmark for Social standards. Back to top
Relevant to: People, Transparency

Just in Time

A production methodology that relies on the minimisation of provisions through last minute delivery of products facilitated through short lead times. Back to top
Relevant to: Own Operations, Manufacturing

Jute

A fibre extracted from the bark of the white jute plant. It is natural, bio-degradable and recyclable and thus environmentally friendly. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing

K


Kapok

A cotton-like substance which grows around the seeds of the ceibatree. Like cotton, the fibres surround the seeds of the plant. Kapok fibres are preferably used for stuffing, not yarn production since they are too smooth, slippery and brittle but have good moisture absorption characteristics. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing

KPIs (Key Performance Indicators)

A set of quantifiable measures that a company uses to assess or compare its performance in terms of meeting their strategic and operational goals. An example of a KPI could be the percentage of sustainable fibres used in a brand’s collection. Back to top
Relevant to: Manufacturing, Transparency, Own Operations

L


Landfill

A specific location in which solid waste is disposed. Back to top
Relevant to: Product Waste, Use & Durability

LCA (Life Cycle Assessment)

A systematic set of procedures for evaluating the environmental impact of products throughout its life cycle. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Product Waste, Own Operations, Use & Durability

LDC (Least Developed Countries)

A category of states that are disadvantaged in their development process, for structural, historical and also geographical reasons. The list includes countries such as Bangladesh, Nepal, Afghanistan, Lesotho, Haiti and Laos. Back to top
Relevant to: People

Lead Time

Number of minutes, hours, or days that occur to complete an operation or process, or must elapse before a desired action takes place. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, People, Manufacturing

Legal requirements

Requirements of the country in which the brand is operating. Back to top
Relevant to: Manufacturing, Packaging & Transport

Limited Compliance

This is context dependent, however as a rough guide this would normally mean between 5 and 15 minor non-conformities. However, the total scope of the audits completed and the relative integrity of the standard will be considered through the verification process. Back to top
Relevant to: All cube topics

Linen

A natural fibre, made from the stalk of a flax plant. Linen is a very durable fibre, it has a high moisture absorbency, is hypo-allergenic and highly breathable. It doesn’t need much water and chemicals to be cultivated. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing

Living wages

Wages and benefits paid to workers should meet at least legal minimum wage standards and always be sufficient to meet basic needs (food, medical care etc.). Back to top
Relevant to: People, Transparency

Locality

Means sustaining communities and supporting local jobs while protecting the quality of the environment. Back to top
Relevant to: Manufacturing, Own Operations

Low-Impact Dyes

Dye that has been classified by the Oeko-Tex Standard 100 as eco-friendly. Generally, low impact dyes do not contain toxic chemicals. They require less rinsing and have a high absorption rate in the fabric (~70%) that bring to less water waste. Back to top
Relevant to: Manufacturing, Own Operations, Use & Durability

Low risk countries

Countries where government effectiveness and institutional capacity is on sufficient level and where production in these countries do not require social audits to be carried out. MADE-BY have created a list that identifies these countries. This list is reviewed and updated annually. Back to top
Relevant to: People

M


Made in Green by OEKO-TEX

An independent textile label that certifies products that have been manufactured by using environmentally friendly processes and under safe and socially responsible working conditions. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, People, Transparency, Use & Durability

Manufacturing Restricted Substance List (MRSL)

A list of chemicals banned from intentional use within textiles and trim manufacturing facilities. An MRSL sets acceptable concentration limits for substances to be used within these production facilities and therefore targets a wider range of chemical substances including those that may be used within manufacturing process but not necessarily end up in the finished product. Back to top
Relevant to: Manufacturing, Own Operations

Materiality Matrix

Enables a company to decide which CSR initiatives to invest in. The matrix plots CSR issues in terms of two dimensions: the importance or attractiveness of the issue to stakeholders and the importance of the issue to the company. The issues mainly involved the environment, society and the core business (tripartite approach of sustainability). Back to top
Relevant to: Transparency

Mills

Factories that transform fibres (such as cotton fibre, flax fibre and hemp fibre) into yarn or cloth. Back to top
Relevant to: Manufacturing, Own Operations, People

Modal®

A regenerated fibre from the house of Lenzing, it is extracted from beechwood. Modal® is ranked Class D in MADE-BY Environmental Benchmark for Fibres. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing

Mohair

The wool fibre of the angora goat. Mohair is an exquisite fibre which is often used in blends to share its outstanding characteristics. It is very resilient, lightweight, lustrous, flame resistant, stretchy, soft, easy to dye and has good heat regulation properties. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing

Monocel®

A yarn made from lyocell bamboo fibre. Bamboo fibre is processed using a closed loop system. Monocel® is ranked Class B in MADE-BY Environmental Benchmark for Fibres. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing

More sustainable material

Preferred materials with a proven lower environmental and/ or social impact. This includes materials in MADE-BY’s Environmental Benchmark for Fibres Class A, B and C as well as industry acknowledged sustainable cotton options, sustainably sourced leather and / or other verifiably more sustainable materials. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing, Use & Durability

More sustainable packaging material

Material with a demonstrably lower environmental impact than an equivalent conventional alternative (in terms of energy, greenhouse gas, water, waste, chemicals and/or biodiversity). Back to top
Relevant to: Packaging & Transport

More sustainable processing techniques

Processes that are less environmentally impactful in terms of water, energy and chemicals. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing, Own Operations

More sustainable products

Products made with more sustainable materials and/or more sustainable processes. Back to top
Relevant to: Product

Mulesing

The practice of cutting off pieces of skin and flesh of a domestic sheep in order to prevent flystrike. The practice is usually performed with animal physically restrained, without anaesthesia and is physically and physiologically painful for the animal. It is common in the Australian wool industry. Back to top
Relevant to: Manufacturing

Multi-Stakeholder Initiative (MSI)

An organisation that brings together various stakeholders (individuals or groups with an interest in an initiative’s success in achieving its objectives or delivering on its intended results) to address specific issues. MADE-BY is a multi-stakeholder initiative with a board that is composed of NGOs, brands and suppliers. Back to top
Relevant to: People, Transparency

N


Natural

Materials or items which are not man-made. This does not mean that it is organic; or that is greener than a man-made item, material or process. Some fabrics from natural resources require extensive processing. For instance, an established method of creating bamboo textile is similar to create regular viscose which requires heavy chemicals use. Back to top
Relevant to: Product

Natural dyes

Natural dyes are pigments derived from organic sources such as plants, animals or minerals. Most of the natural dyes are extracted from vegetables and do not harm the environment and ecosystems like many synthetic dyes. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing

NGO (Non-Governmental Organisation)

Private sector, voluntary (and usually non-profit and non-sectarian) organisation that contributes to, or participates in, cooperation projects, education, training or other humanitarian, progressive, or watchdog activities. Back to top
Relevant to: People, Transparency

Non-Compliance

A demonstrable lack of compliance with an established requirement, such as the clauses of a particular standard. Back to top
Relevant to: People, Manufacturing

Non-Discrimination

Hiring, remuneration, access to training, promotion, discipline, termination of employment, retirement and any other terms of employment shouldn’t be based on race, colour, sex, religion, political opinion or affiliation, national extraction or social origin, caste, marital status, sex orientation, pregnancy, family responsibilities, trade union activities or membership, disability or age. Back to top
Relevant to: People

Non-Saleable

Products that cannot be sold typically damaged customer returns and samples. Back to top
Relevant to: Product Waste

NPO (Not-for-profit Organisation)

Associations, charities, cooperatives, and other voluntary organisations formed to further cultural, educational, religious, professional, or public service objectives. Their start-up funding is provided by their members, trustees, or others who do not expect repayment, and who do not share in the organisation’s profits or losses which are retained or absorbed. Most non-governmental organisations (NGOs) are NPOs. MADE-BY is a NPO. Back to top
Relevant to: People, Transparency

Nordic Swan

Voluntary eco-labelling scheme that evaluates a product’s impact on the environment throughout the whole life cycle. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Transparency, Manufacturing, Use & Durability

Nylon

Similar to polyester, nylon fibres come from a petrochemical source. Nylon production process is very energy intensive and polluting (it releases nitrous oxide). Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing

O


Oeko-Tex Standard

An international testing and certification system for textiles, limiting the use of certain chemicals. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing, Own Operations

Organic Agriculture

Cultivation approach that respects the development of nature. The ecological succession allows soil to restore its fertility because there are no pesticides and mineral fertilisers. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Own Operations

Organic Content Claim

Standard that provides companies with a tool to verify that one or more specific input materials are in a final product. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing, Transparency

Organic Content Standard (OCS 100)

Relies on third-party verification to verify if final product contains a certain amount of organic material. It does not address the use of chemicals or any social or environmental aspects of production beyond the integrity of the organic material. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing, Transparency

Organic cotton

Organic cotton is grown organically, hence in an environmentally friendly, sustainable way to support biodiversity within ecosystems and prevent soil erosion. There are strict guidelines by various certification organisations to be certified organically, e.g. no use of synthetic fertilisers, insecticides or GMOs. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing

Organic Exchange Blended Standard

It verifies the presence of organic material in a final products that should contain between 5 and 100% organic material. It is verified by an accredited third party and it tracks the flow of raw material from its source till the final product. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing, Transparency

P


Packaging Restricted Substance List (pRSL)

A document that limits the amount of chemicals permitted in the brand’s packaging. The suppliers are required to send their materials for testing by an accredited testing body. Back to top
Relevant to: Packaging & Transport

PAN UK (Pesticide Action Network)

UK charity focused on tackling the problems caused by pesticides and promoting safe and sustainable alternatives to pesticides in agriculture. Its work includes campaigning for change in policy and practices and coordinating projects to help farmers in avoiding the use of hazardous and noxious pesticides. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Own Operations

Performance indicator

Used to measure customers’ satisfaction and how well outputs are realised. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Use & Durability

Pesticides

Chemical or biological substance designed to kill or retard the growth of pests that damage the growth of crops. All chemical pesticides can damage the environment and human health in the long term through their persistence in nature and body tissue. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Own Operations

PET fabric

Fabric made out of recycled polyester, plastic bottles (PET bottles). The recycled polyester fibres can be blended with other materials, e.g. cotton. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing

Point of sale

The place at which a retail transaction is carried out. Back to top
Relevant to: Use & Durability

Policy (company)

A general commitment and is formally stated by top management. A quality policy statement should express top management’s intent to implement and improve the quality management system and should allow to set quality objectives. Back to top
Relevant to: People, Transparency

Polylactic acid (PLA)

A thermoplastic polyester derived from 100% renewable sources, mainly corn. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing

Post-consumer waste (PCW)

An end product that has completed its life cycle as a consumer item and would otherwise have been disposed of as a solid waste. Back to top
Relevant to: Product Waste

Pre- Consumer Waste

Consists of materials generated by manufacturers and processors, and may consist of other by-products that were used in the consumer market. Back to top
Relevant to: Product Waste

Pre-treatment

Any treatment which is undertaken before any actual dyeing and printing process. Back to top
Relevant to: Manufacturing

Preventative Action

Activities, actions, initiatives etc. undertaken to manage and avoid the risk of a non-conformity e.g., establishing systems to avoid non-compliance with grievance reporting requirements, such as implementing and properly maintaining a fit-for-purpose grievance reporting system. Back to top
Relevant to: People, Transparency

Product Carbon Footprint (PCF)

Run by the Öko-Institut and is an attempt to harmonise international standards for the assessment and communication of product related carbon emissions. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Transparency

Product end of life

Point in time when product is no longer used by the consumer. Back to top
Relevant to: Product Waste

Product Life Cycle

The total impact a product has on the environment from extraction of raw materials to production, transportation, use, recycling and final disposal. Usually a product’s life cycle includes energy and water consumption, liquid discharges, gaseous emissions, solid wastes, etc. Back to top
Relevant to: Product Waste, Use & Durability

Product waste

Samples, non-saleable customer returns and post-consumer products. Back to top
Relevant to: Product Waste

Production volume

Volume expressed in pieces produced and delivered to the warehouse (not pieces sold) in the reviewed year. For example, for 2015 this could be Spring’15, Summer’15, Fall ’15, Winter ’15. In addition, it would include the Never Out of Stock (NOS) delivered to the warehouse between 1 Jan and 31 Dec of the relevant year. Back to top
Relevant to: Product

Productivity

A measure of the efficiency of a person, machine, factory, system, etc., in converting inputs into useful outputs. In the context of labour standards, productivity improvements refers to a range of activities designed to increase efficiency of the factory (production planning, quality improvements, line-balancing, time and motion studies, input-output mapping, right first time, reducing re-work etc) with the objective of improving conditions for workers, typically by reducing workers hours whilst increasing their wages. Back to top
Relevant to: People, Transparency

Protect, Remedy and Respect Framework

A framework regarding business and human rights presented to the UN Human Rights Council in June 2008, which rests on three pillars:
1. The state duty to protect against human rights abuses by third parties, including business
2. The corporate responsibility to respect human rights
3. Greater access by victims to effective remedy, both judicial and non-judicial
Back to top
Relevant to: People, Transparency

Purchasing Practices

A brand’s buying behaviour; includes timing and accuracy of purchase orders, payment terms, changes in order quantity or specification and cancelation of orders. These activities are part of the day-to-day activity of a fashion brand, however when pushed too far can lead to compromised labour standards at supplier level. Back to top
Relevant to: People, Own Operations

Q


Quality

In manufacturing, a measure of excellence or a state of being free from defects, deficiencies and malfunctioning. It is brought about by strict and consistent commitment to certain standards that achieve uniformity of a product in order to satisfy specific customer or user requirements. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing

R


Ramie

A bast fibre similar to flax. It is derived from the stem of a plant from the nettle family mainly grown in China. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing

Rayon

A regenerated, semisynthetic fibre made from cellulose, cotton linters or wood chips. By treating these with caustic soda and carbon disulphide and passing the resultant solution through spinnerets we obtain rayon (viscose). Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing

Raw material

Crude, unprocessed or partially processed material used as feedstock for a processing operation. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing

Raw material producers

Factories that transform raw agricultural materials, such as ginned or un-ginned cotton into fibres which are ready to be sent to a mill. Back to top
Relevant to: People

REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals)

Aims at improving the protection of human health and the environment through the better and earlier identification of chemical substances. This is done through the four processes of REACH, namely the registration, evaluation, authorisation and restriction of chemicals. REACH also aims to enhance innovation and competitiveness of the EU chemicals industry. Back to top
Relevant to: Manufacturing, Own Operations

Recycled Content Standard (RCS)

Tracks recycled raw materials through the supply chain. The standard was developed through work done by the Materials Traceability Working Group, part of OIA’s Sustainability Working Group. Back to top
Relevant to: Transparency, Product, Manufacturing

Recyclate

Waste material that is recycled into input for new products. This material will normally have undergone some form of treatment e.g., plastic pellets produced from used plastic bottles. Back to top
Relevant to: Packaging & Transport

Recycled clothing

The reuse of materials to prevent waste. At times the material must be processed. Recycled clothing usually uses second-hand garments, off cuts of leather and cloth, and other repurposed materials, for example tyres, fire hoses and even fabrics made from old plastic bottles. Back to top
Relevant to: Product Waste, Use & Durability

Recycled cotton

Made from pre-consumer cotton that otherwise would be dumped in landfills. Recycled cotton is manufactured with no wet finishing or dying. There is no chemical or liquid of any kind used in its process. Recycled cotton is ranked Class A in MADE-BY Environmental Benchmark for Fibres. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing

Recycled fibres

Any kind of fibre that undertakes a recycling process. It offers a low-impact alternative to other fibre sources, with reduced level of energy material and chemical consumption possible. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing

Recycled nylon

Largely generated from post-industrial or post-consumer waste, such as carpets, used garments and finishing nets. Nylon can be recycled through mechanical or chemical process. Mechanically recycled nylon is ranked Class A in MADE-BY Environmental Benchmark for Fibres, while chemically recycled nylon is ranked in Class B. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing

Recycled polyester

Largely generated from post-industrial or post-consumer waste, such as PET bottles or polyester garments. Polyester can be recycled through mechanical or chemical process. Mechanically recycled polyester is ranked Class A in MADE-BY Environmental Benchmark for Fibres, while chemically recycled polyester is ranked in Class B. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing

Recycling

Any recovery operation by which waste materials are reprocessed into products, materials or substances whether for the original or other purposes. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing, Product Waste

Reduce, Reuse and Recycle (R3)

The three essential components of environmentally-responsible consumer behaviour. Reduce means that the number of purchases made by a single individual should be limited. The concept behind the second R, reuse, is that used items should be reused as much as possible before replacing them. The third R, Recycle, suggests that the items should be used for a new purpose as much as possible. Back to top
Relevant to: Use & Durability

Renewable Resources

Any type of resources that are automatically replenished by the environment over relatively short periods of time. Back to top
Relevant to: Own Operations

Reputable guidelines

Conventions agreed by international actors, resulting from a series of value judgments, set forth to protect basic worker rights, enhance workers’ job security, and improve their terms of employment on a global scale. Back to top
Relevant to: People

Responsible Consumerism

While purchasing, the consumer takes into account the impact and consequences for the environment and the society as a whole. Back to top
Relevant to: Use & Durability

Responsible Down Standard (RDS)

Ensures that down and feathers come from ducks and geese that have been treated well. This means enabling them to live healthy lives, and not suffer from pain, fear or distress. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing, Transparency

Responsibly disposed

Recycled or meaningfully repurposed, rather than incinerated or sent to landfill. Back to top
Relevant to: Product Waste

Restricted Substance List (RSL)

Sets concentration limits for chemical substances within materials in order to ensure the products meets legislative obligations such as safety standards. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing

Right-First-Time Dyeing (RFT)

The rates of RFT dyeing refers to the frequency that the specified colours are achieved on the first attempt at dyeing a fabric, fibre, filament etc. Better RFT rates mean that fewer re-dyes are occurring, limiting the need for additional water, energy, and chemical use. Management of RFT dyeing rates is a good indication of control over the process of colour management as a whole. Back to top
Relevant to: Manufacturing

S


SA8000 Standard 2014

An auditable social certification standard for decent workplaces, across all industrial sectors. It is based on the UN Declaration of Human Rights, conventions of the ILO, UN and national law. It support industries to create a common ground to measure social compliance. Those seeking to comply with SA8000 have adopted policies and procedures that protect the basic human rights of workers. Back to top
Relevant to: People, Transparency

SAI (Social Accountability International)

Non-governmental, international, multi-stakeholder organisation dedicated to develop social standards. It aims at improving workplaces’ and communities’ life standards. Back to top
Relevant to: People, Transparency

Samples

Garments produced on a small scale, typically for prototyping, design, shows, marketing, and as examples for interested B2B customers. Samples may also include overstocked items from previous seasons and competitor samples. Back to top
Relevant to: Product Waste

SCS Global Services

Company that provides global leadership in third-party environmental and sustainability certification, auditing, testing, and standards development. Back to top
Relevant to: Transparency, Own Operations

Sedex (Supplier Ethical Data Exchange)

Not for profit membership organisation dedicated to driving improvements in ethical and responsible business practices in global supply chains. Sedex is an innovative and effective supply chain management solution, helping companies to reduce risks, protecting company reputation and improving supply chain practices. Back to top
Relevant to: People, Transparency, Own Operations

Senior manager

In a hierarchy, Senior Manager falls between Manager and General Manger. The Senior Manager is responsible for planning and directing the work of a group of individuals, monitoring their work, and taking corrective action when necessary. Back to top
Relevant to: All cube topics

Sisal

A bast fibre similar to hemp from the Agave sisalana plant of the Agave family mainly grown in the West Indies, Central America and Africa. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing

Social Compliance Audit

An objective, documented assessment of a supplier following specific defined criteria. Back to top
Relevant to: People, Transparency

Social Impact Assessment

Its goal is to drive improvements that increase the value of programmes to the supply chains in which they operate. Social impact assessment helps organisations to plan better, implement more effectively, and successfully bring initiatives to scale. Back to top
Relevant to: People, Transparency

Solidaridad

Established in 1969, Solidaridad has a long experience of on the ground partnership in supply chain responsibility across a number of product streams including cotton and textiles. Solidaridad founded MADE-BY in 2004 in response to consumer concerns about sustainability in the fashion industry. Back to top
Relevant to: Transparency

Soy Fabric

A by-product of soybean oil. Chemicals are used to transform it from a plant to a fabric. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing

Stakeholder Mapping

A visual tool used in stakeholder analysis to clarify and categorise the various stakeholders by drawing further pictures of what the stakeholder groups are, which interests they represent, the amount of power they possess, whether they represent inhibiting or supporting factors for the organisation to realise its objectives, or methods in which they should be dealt with. SM is part of the so called stakeholder management. Back to top
Relevant to: Transparency

Stinging-Nettle Fabric

Fabric made from fibres derived from stems of stinging nettles. The fibres are similar to ramie but taken from stinging nettle plant. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing

Stock Keeping Unit (SKU)

Item that because of unique characteristic (such as brand, size, colour, model), must be stored separated from other items. Every SKU is assigned a unique identification number (inventory or stock number). Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Packaging & Transport

Strategic Supplier

Direct suppliers making up significant proportion of production by volume and/or spend. The brand should justify the exclusion of the remainder or threshold for strategic suppliers. Back to top
Relevant to: All cube topics

Supply Chain

Network of entities, directly or indirectly interlinked and interdependent in serving the same consumer or customer. It comprises of vendors that supply raw material, producers who convert the material into products, warehouses that store, distribution centres that deliver to the retailers, and retailers who bring the product to the ultimate user. In the textile industry, the supply chain covers the operations from the sourcing of raw materials to the end of use of the clothing. Back to top
Relevant to: All cube topics

Supplier Audit

Process of following the procedures that are agreed on during a selection audit process. It identifies non conformances in the manufacturing process, engineering change process, invoicing process, quality process, and also the supplier/shipment process. Back to top
Relevant to: People, Manufacturing, Transparency

Supply base

The portion of a supply network that is actively managed by a buying company. It helps in facilitating the business relationships with suppliers. Back to top
Relevant to: People, Own Operations

Sustainability

The physical development and institutional operating practices that meet the needs of present users without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs, particularly with regard to use and waste of natural resources. Sustainability presumes that resources are finite, and should be used conservatively and wisely with a view to long-term priorities and consequences of the ways in which resources are used. Sustainable practices aim at supporting individuals, organisations and companies from the environmental, social and economic point of view. Back to top
Relevant to: All cube topics

Sustainable Clothing Action Plan (SCAP)

An initiative with an ambition to promote sustainable clothing practices clothing across the lifecycle. By bringing together industry, government and the third sector SCAP aims to reduce resource use and secure recognition for corporate performance by developing sector-wide targets. Back to top
Relevant to: Transparency, Product, People, Own Operations

Sustainable Fashion

About ‘building long-lasting environmental and social quality through the design, production and use of fashion and textiles’. MADE-BY focuses on improving the sustainability of a brand’s collection from raw material to finished product. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, People, Transparency

Sustainable Fibre Programme (SFP)

Works on local and regional concepts of sustainability, in line with the global definition of the social, economic and environmental concept. It takes the best of organic agricultural and husbandry practices and translates them to more widely achievable and sustainable practices. SFP takes into account the entire chain of custody, from fibre to retail, by using traceability through content claim standard. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, People, Transparency

Sustainable Forest Management (SFM)

The management of forests with the aim of stopping forest degradation and deforestation while increasing direct benefits to people and the environment. At the social level, sustainable forest management contributes to livelihoods, income generation and employment. At the environmental level, it contributes to important services such as carbon sequestration and water, soil and biodiversity conservation. Back to top
Relevant to: People, Transparency, Own Operations

Sustainable Packaging Coalition (SPC)

A working group dedicated to a more robust environmental vision for packaging. They endeavour to build packaging systems that encourage economic prosperity and a sustainable flow of materials thanks to their innovative and technological approach. Back to top
Relevant to: Packaging & Transport

Sustainable Textile Production (STeP)

The OEKO-TEX® certification system for brands, retailers and manufacturers who want to communicate their achievements regarding sustainable textile production in a transparent, credible and clear manner to the public. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing, Transparency

Synthetic dyes

Man-made dyes often based on petroleum or coal. The processes are often energy and water intensive and can contain chemicals harmful for the natural environment and humans. Back to top
Relevant to: Manufacturing

Sweatshop

Business establishment that makes its employees work under unsustainable and often hazardous conditions, and pays only minimal or survival wages. Back to top
Relevant to: People

T


TENCEL®

Lyocell fibre from the house of Lenzing. It is of botanic origin, since it is extracted from the raw material wood. Fibre production itself is extremely eco-friendly, due to the closed loop system. TENCEL® is ranked Class B in MADE-BY Environmental Benchmark for Fibres. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing

Textile Exchange (TE)

Formally known as Organic Exchange (OE), TE is a non-profit, membership based organisation. It can provide an initial sustainability assessment for companies in order to develop a long-term plan. This work includes verifying the supply chain in order to demonstrate how the material is sourced, processed and manufactured. They consult companies to determine which is the most sustainable fibre/material to use. They help companies to formally trace the integrity of their materials and manufacturing processes so textiles can be properly labelled. Back to top
Relevant to: Transparency, Product, Manufacturing

Third party logistics (3PL)

Outsourcing activities related to Logistics and Distribution. The 3PL industry includes Logistics Solution Providers (LSPs) and the shippers. Back to top
Relevant to: Packaging & Transport

Traceability

The ability to identify and trace the history, distribution, location, and application of products, parts, materials, and services. The traceability system records and follows the trail of a product all along the supply chain from suppliers to the final distributor. Back to top
Relevant to: Transparency

 

Transparency

Within an organisation, it involves clear and honest communication of the activities of a business as well as future goals, to all stakeholders involved. Back to top
Relevant to: Transparency

U


UK Modern Slavery Act 2015

An act to make provision about slavery, servitude and forced or compulsory labour and about human trafficking, including provision for the protection of victims, provision for an Independent Anti-slavery Commissioner and for connected purposes. MADE-BY has developed a programme that will guide companies in complying with the new act. Back to top
Relevant to: People

UN Declaration on Human Rights (DHR)

Drafted by representatives with different legal and cultural backgrounds from all regions of the world, the Declaration was proclaimed by the United Nations General Assembly in Paris on 10 December 1948. It sets out, for the first time, fundamental human rights to be universally protected. Back to top
Relevant to: People

UN Guiding Principles

A set of guidelines that seek to provide an authoritative global standard for preventing and addressing the risk of adverse human rights impacts linked to business activity. Back to top
Relevant to: People

UN Global Compact (UNGC)

An international initiative that provides a framework of 10 principles in 4 different categories (human rights, labour standards, the environment and anti-corruption). Companies are invited to commit themselves to these principles, to implement them in their strategies, management systems and operations. Back to top
Relevant to: People, Transparency

Upcycling

The practice of recycling a material in such a way that it retains its original high-quality in a closed-loop industrial cycle. Back to top
Relevant to: Product Waste, Use & Durability

Use phase

Life cycle stage where a product is ‘in-use’ by the consumer, usually related to wear and laundering. Back to top
Relevant to: Use & Durability

V


Value Chain

Value-adding activities in the supply chain that convert inputs into outputs and helps creating competitive advantage. Back to top
Relevant to: Manufacturing

Validation

The use of objective evidence to confirm that the requirements which define an intended use or application have been met. Whenever all requirements have been met, the validation status is established. Back to top
Relevant to: Transparency, Own Operations

Verification

The use of objective evidence to confirm that specified requirements have been met. Whenever specified requirements have been met, a verified status is achieved. Back to top
Relevant to: Transparency, Own Operations

Vertically Integrated Supply Chain

Where a single factory or production unit is responsible for multiple stages in the supply chain, for example the unit is responsible for spinning, weaving, dyeing and cut, make, trim (CMT). If a brand uses a vertically integrated production unit, it is easier for the brand to have visibility and manage sustainability over a broader range of processes in the supply chain. Back to top
Relevant to: Manufacturing, Own Operations

Viscose

A type of cellulosic fibre formed from chemically dissolved natural polymers. A common source of cellulose for viscose is fast growing soft woods such as beech. The raw material for cellulosic fibres is frequently described as carbon neutral. However the production of viscose generates emissions in the air in form of sulphur and nitrous oxides. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing

W


Waste

Any substance or object which the holder discards or intends or is required to discard”. In waste planning there are various categorisations of waste (e.g. municipal solid waste, controlled waste, hazardous waste etc). Back to top
Relevant to: Product Waste, Use & Durability

Waste Hierarchy

Ranks waste management options according to what is best for the environment and the society. It gives top priority to preventing waste in the first place. When waste is created, it gives priority to preparing it for re-use, then recycling, then recovery (e.g. energy recovery), and last of all disposal (e.g. landfill). Back to top
Relevant to: Product Waste

Waste Management

The collection, transportation, and disposal of garbage, sewage, and other waste products. Waste management covers all the processes regarding waste disposal from proper handling of waste materials, maintenance of waste transport trucks and dumping facilities to compliance with health codes and environmental regulations. Back to top
Relevant to: Product Waste

Waste Water Treatment

The process of removing contaminants from wastewater. It includes physical, chemical and biological processes to remove all the polluting agents. Its objective is to produce a waste stream and a solid waste or sludge suitable for discharge or reuse back into the environment. Back to top
Relevant to: Product Waste, Own Operations

Water Footprint

A measure of the total volume of freshwater used to produce goods or services produced by a business or consumed by an individual or community. Back to top
Relevant to: Own Operations

Wet processing

Liquid-based pre-treatments, dyeing, post-dyeing, finishing, laundry and printing—particularly piece-printing. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing

Wet processing partners / suppliers

Partners or suppliers in the supply chain involved in wet processing treatments, such as pre-treatment, dyeing, printing, laundry and finishing. Back to top
Relevant to: Manufacturing

Workers’ rights

The right to refuse work, the right to an employment contract and the right to work in a safe environment. Back to top
Relevant to: People

WRAP (Worldwide Responsible Accredited Production)

An organisation founded by companies in the global fashion and apparel industry to monitor and certify their manufacturing facilities’ compliance with specified standards (listed in WRAP 12 principles). Back to top
Relevant to: Manufacturing, Transparency

Y


Yarn

An assemblage of fibres that are twisted and woven together to form a continuous strand that can be made into textile fabric. Back to top
Relevant to: Product, Manufacturing

Z


ZDHC (Zero Discharge of Hazardous Chemicals)

21 leading brands committed to advance towards zero discharge of hazardous chemicals in the textile and footwear supply chain and act to improve their environmental performance. Back to top
Relevant to: Manufacturing, Own Operations

ZDHC Joint Roadmap

Demonstrates the ZDHC group’s collaborative goals in leading the apparel and footwear industry towards zero discharge of hazardous chemicals for all products across all pathways by 2020. The document is a plan that sets a new standard of environmental performance for the global textile and footwear industry. Back to top
Relevant to: Manufacturing, Own Operations

Zero Waste

The design and management of products and processes to systematically avoid and eliminate the volume and toxicity of waste and materials, conserve and recover all resources, and not burn or bury them. Back to top
Relevant to: Product Waste, Use & Durability